what are some characteristics of a developing country?

Low Standards of Living, characterized by low incomes, inequality, poor health and inadequate education 2. However, despite this great diversity there are many common features of the developing economies. Some differences might include climate, population size, culture, and diet. Two types of statistical data regarding nutrition are given in Table 4.4. The World Bank describes the terms ‘developing world’ and ‘developing country’ as ‘tricky.’ The World Bank is a UN institution that offers loans to developing countries for capital projects.Using the terms is tricky even when people use them cautiously and are not judging the country’s development status.When listing or categorizing countries for statistics and reports, the World Bank does not use the term ‘developing country.’Accord… The South- East and Eastern Asia, on the other hand, have large populations. - Technology includes 24/7 access to communication systems and the internet. It will be seen from Table 4.2 that the dependency burden of young persons (i.e., below the age of 15 years) in case of low-income countries is very high at 69%, whereas the dependency burden of old people on the working population is much lower, only 6 per cent. 1. Agricultural Backwardness 6. The diversity among developing economies is perhaps nowhere to be seen so much in evidence as in respect of the facts of their population in respect of its size, density and growth. It will be seen from Table 4.3 that in India enrolment for secondary education is 60 per cent and in China 78 per cent of relevant age group. According to these estimates for the year 1995, per capita income was $340 in India, $ 620 in China, $240 in Bangladesh, $ 700 in Sri Lanka. Similarly, enrolment rate in tertiary educational institutions which impart higher liberal, managerial and technical education in developing countries of low income and lower middle income is 6 per cent and 19 per cent respectively of the relevant age group as compared to 67 per cent in high-income developed countries. Economic development is needed so that living standards of their people may be raised. This realization has been further strengthened by the ever-increasing contacts and communications between such countries and the developed countries. Share Your Word File Likewise, health, the other important human resource, is a key factor that determines efficiency or productivity of the people. This excessive dependence on agriculture is the result of low productivity and backwardness of their agriculture and lack of modern industrial growth. fundamental to the comparison of developed and developing countries As discussed in the previous lecture, developing countries are characterized by low per- capita income and human development. On the other hand, developed countries are those whose per capital real income, technical knowledge and capital stock are very high. Famous Lewis model of economic development with unlimited supplies of labour and Fei-Ranis model of “Development in a Labour Surplus Economy” explain how in dualistic economies, the unemployed and underemployed labour in the traditional sector is drawn into a modern high productivity sector. If these surpluses are channelled into productive investment, they would tend to increase substantially the level of capital formation. What are some of the Common Characteristics of Developing Countries? No wonder that people of these countries which have won freedom from the colonial rule aspire to develop economically and that in the shortest possible time. Developed countries are countries that already have high technology and an evenly distributed economic level. To quote Amartya Sen, “The valued functioning may vary from elementary ones, such as being adequately nourished and being free from avoidable diseases to very complex activities or personal states such as being able to take part in the life of community and having self-respect”. In a number of developing countries, the birth rate exceeds the death rate and there is a high dependency ratio, with a high proportion of children being dependent on a small proportion of workers. The commonalities between developed countries include an improved quality of life and greater access to basic necessities. It will be seen from this table that as compared to high income countries enrolment in secondary and tertiary educational institutions was 38% and 63% of person of relevant age group in 2009 as compared to 100 per cent in high-income developed countries. The masses in the poor countries constantly face hunger, illiteracy, sickness and are forced to eke out a life of extreme poverty. The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected progress direction. Share Your PPT File, Effects of Tariffs on Terms of Trade | International Economics. It is the production function which establishes a relation between inputs and outputs. Some developing countries have weak institutional structure such as lack of property rights, absence of the rule of law and political instability which affect incentives to invest. A developed country Will be the one that possesses a high level of progress and a significant projection of growth of those factors. In the small modern sector consisting of large-scale manufacturing and mining which provides wage employment, highly capital-intensive techniques imported from the developed countries are used. While we have examples of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with their teeming millions and galloping rates of population growth, there are the Latin American countries which are very sparsely populated and whose total population in some cases numbers less than a single metropolitan city in India and China. The developing countries are not only furnished with low levels of living, but they are characterized by low levels of labor productivity. Some of the characteristics are: 1. The great threat of this rapid population growth rate is that it sets at nought all attempts at development in as much as much of the increased output is swallowed up by the increased population. In the present-day developed countries, the modern industrial growth brought about structural transformation with the proportion of working population engaged in agriculture falling drastically and that employed in the modern industrial and services sectors rising enormously. What is more important is that economic development of the poor countries is necessary from the point of view of the richer countries. The United Nations has classified different countries around the world as either developed countries or developing countries. The per capita income of the people of India is very low in comparison with that of the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and Japan. In … For example, the recent estimates reveal that about 28 per cent of India’s population (i.e. While developing countries are countries where the level of welfare of the population is still in the middle of developing level. The unemployment and underemployment in these less developed economies are not only due to the slow growth of capital or low rate of investment, it is also due to the highly capital-intensive techniques used in the modern sector. This is because as a result of rapid population growth, capital per head is still very low. Note that, according to the new view as made popular by Amartya Sen economic development is needed mainly for two reasons: (2) Enlargement of human capabilities and freedoms. By utilising their natural resources accelerating rate of capital formation and making progress in technology they can increase their levels of productivity and income and break the vicious circle of poverty operating in them. Unless the poor countries are enabled to share the general prosperity, their condition will become more and more difficult. The level of per capita income being quite low, most of it is spent on satisfying the bare necessities of life, leaving a very little margin of income for capital accumulation. A developing country is generally predominantly agricultural. Boeke but he emphasised the social dualism, according to which there is sharp contrast between the social systems characterising the two broad sectors of the economy, one in which the original social system with its subsistence or pre-capitalist nature, limited wants, non-economic behaviour and low level of economic and social welfare prevails, and the other where imported capitalist system with its modern system of industrial organisation, wage employment, unlimited wants and positive behaviour to economic incentives exists. This should have resulted in a greater volume of savings available for capital formation. posted by John Spacey, April 30, 2018 A developed country is a nation that offers economic security and a high quality of life to its population. Low Levels of Productivity 3. There is a very urgent need for economic development in the underdeveloped or poor countries. According to estimates made by ILO given in Table 4.1 on an average 61 per cent of workforce of low-income developing countries was employed in agriculture whereas only 19 per cent in industry and 20 per cent in services. Their birth and death rates are stable. Health conditions in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are highly deplorable and they continue to suffer from problems of acute undernourishment, malnourishment and children’s mortality rate. Low standard of living. Major Characteristics of Developing Countries In this lecture, we will discuss some of the salient features of developing countries. Content Guidelines 2. We thus see that the problem of unemployment and underemployment in less developed economies has been intensified by the technological dualism caused by the use, in the modern manufacturing and mining, of capital-intensive technology imported from abroad which is wholly unsuitable to the factor endowments of these less developed economies with abundant labour and small capital. To conclude, we can say that while there are some common characteristics that are held by developing countries to some degree, there are also several significant differences. The data of various education indicators is given in Table 4.3. Some countries such as countries of Africa do not face problem of rapid population growth, others have to cope with the consequences of rapid population growth. The desire for development has followed the political freedom of the many poor countries from foreign rule. To achieve these economic growths is necessary but not sufficient. High growth rate of population. Their desire to develop is natural and understandable because they experience acute physical sufferings as a result of appallingly miserable economic conditions in which they live. The following are the basic characteristics of a developed country. Therefore, for removal of poverty, direct anti-poverty measures such as generation of enough employment opportunities are taken. High level of unemployment. The world is divided into two parts- one of the poor and the other of the rich which is continuously becoming richer. For example, in India rate of investment has now (2012-13) risen to about 35 per cent but it still remains a poor country with low level of productivity. In several newly emerging countries of Africa too and in some of the Middle Eastern countries the size of their population cannot be regarded as excessive, considering their large expanse. Further, in countries like India, advantage of demographic dividend can be taken only if the younger persons can be educated, healthy and equipped with appropriate skills so that they can be employed in productive activities. This technological dualism with the fact that modern sector has limited labour-absorptive capacity contains important implications for development strategy to be framed for less developed countries like India with surplus labour. It may however be noted that after the Second World War and with getting political freedom from colonial rule, in a good number of the underdeveloped countries the process of growth has been started and their gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita income are increasing. About 70% of the world’s 7 billion people live in underdeveloped countries.. This has resulted in disguised unemployment in agriculture. In India adult literacy rate is only 63 per cent in 2009 whereas it is much higher in China (94 %) and Brazil (90 %) as compared to 98% in high-income developed countries. On the other hand, in the large traditional sector covering agriculture, handicrafts and allied activities, in which there exist extended family system and self-employment, labour-intensive technology is generally used. Some developing countries are largely dependent on exports of primary products, others do not show such dependence, and others do not show such dependence. There is ample evidence in the world of the fact that when nations cannot solve their domestic problems, their governments plunge them into war with their neighbours who may be prosperous. It is thus in the interest of world peace and harmony that the poor countries are enabled to remove or reduce their poverty. However, the quantity of capital per head is still very low in them and therefore productivity remains low. The low level of capital formation in a developing country is due both to the weakness of the inducement to invest and to the low propensity and capacity to save. Lack of education manifests itself in lower enrolment rate in primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions which impact knowledge and skills of the people. The desire to develop is keenly felt by different sections of their population. The situation in other developing countries is no better. Political independence has naturally raised expectations of the people in the economic sphere. The underdeveloped or the developing countries, as these are popularly known, inspite of their diverse structure, have some common characteristics. Many of these nations have an economy that is based on farming. The first important feature of the developing countries is their low per capita income. The following points highlight the fourteen basic characteristics of underdeveloped countries. In other words, they constitute only potential resources. The term refers to the current state of a nation and is not used to determine changing dynamics or future progress. Keeping in view this dualistic structure of less developed economies, important models of income and employment have been propounded. High Population Growth Rate. What do we find today? Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! When increasing population cannot obtain employment in the modern non-agricultural occupations, such as industry, transport and other services, then the people remain on land and agriculture and do some work which they are able to get. With the explosive rate of growth of population and labour force and the limited creation of employment opportunities in the modern sectors because of the highly capital-intensive technology, surplus labour has emerged in the agriculture and services. Besides, there are lot of differences with regard to levels of education, health, food production and availability of natural resources. As a result of the difference in technologies used, the labour productivity and levels of earnings in the modern sector are much higher than those in the traditional sector. Imagine a big city in the United States and a small village in Ethiopia. It will be seen from Table 4.4 that percentage of under-weight persons to total population is very high in developing countries 31 per cent in low income countries (LIC) and 15 per cent in lower middle income countries whereas it is very low at 5% in high income developed countries in the year 2009. Low Level of Income 2. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The following characteristics of an underdeveloped economy are found in the Indian economy: 1. Besides, health enjoyed by the people is good in itself as it directly increases the happiness and welfare of the people, Lower health of the people of developing countries is manifested lower life expectancy at birth, higher mortality rate of children under 5 years age, undernourishment and malnourishment (i.e., underweight children) of the people and access to improved sanitation facilities. An important feature of developing economies, especially those which are marked by surplus labour is that they have a dualistic structure. Technology can be used to assist countries in developing their economies, building trade opportunities and furthering education. A large bulk of population of these countries lives below the poverty line. These characteristics might include: Relatively low incomes per capita and a low level of absolute savings Lower absolute levels of productivity (labour and capital) Such a situation threatens the economic and political stability of the world. This is due to use of capital-intensive technologies in the organised industrial and services sectors. However, it is technological dualism rather than Boeke’s social dualism which has an important bearing on the problem of economic growth and surplus labour in the developing countries. A developing country is also known as an LMIC, or a low and middle-income country. Similarly, Table 4.3 reveals that adult literacy rate (percentage of population of ages 15 and older that can read and write a short simple statement in their everyday life) is much lower (62% in low income and 80% in lower middle income developing countries) in 2009 as compared to 98% in high income developed countries. Besides, lack of education and skills makes people less adaptable to change and lowers the ability to organise and manage industrial enterprises. The developing countries lack in human capital that is responsible for low productivity of labour and capital in them. Times are gone when people believed in their destiny or kismet. Even with an increase in the level of individual incomes in a developing economy, there does not usually follow a higher rate of accumulation because of the tendency to copy the higher levels of consumption prevailing in the advanced countries. Disguised unemployment means that there are more persons engaged in agriculture than are actually needed so that the addition of such persons does not add to agricultural output, or putting it alternatively, given the technology and organisation even if some of the persons are withdrawn from land, no fall in production will follow from such withdrawal. TOS4. Moreover, since the technology used in the modern sector is highly capital-intensive, the growth of this sector has not absorbed adequate amount of labour in high productivity and high wage employment. Generally, there exist large inequalities in the distribution of incomes in developing countries. The dominance of agriculture in developing countries can be known from the distribution of their workforce by sectors. characteristics of poverty include inadequate diet, poor health, short life expectancy, and illiteracy. These countries are characterized by being less developed industrially and a lower Human Development Index than other countries. Thus this concept is normally applied to know the productivity of labor. The poor countries will agitate more and more for a share in prosperity and, consequently, their demand on the richer countries will grow louder and louder in volume and intensity. Some developing countries have weak institutional structure such as lack of property rights, absence of the rule of law and political instability which affect incentives to invest. Wider income inequalities. In India which is a lower middle income country, under 5-years mortality rate in 2009 was relatively high at 66 as against only 8 per 1000 live births in the United States and United Kingdom. Todaro classifies these common characteristics into six broad categories: Indian economy possesses all the characteristics common to underdeveloped or developing countries. In India the percentage of undernourished persons to total population was high at 21 per cent but Brazil has succeeded in lowering it to 6 per cent of the population. The economies of these two countries are one major characteristic that set them apart. Conversely, underdeveloped nations around the world also share common characteristics. According to the concept of technological dualism, the important difference between the traditional and the modern sectors lies in the difference between the production techniques or technologies used. Importance of Agriculture: In developing countries agriculture is the main occupation. Nurkse has called this as “demonstration effect”. With the growth of population in the last few decades the demographic preserve on land has increased resulting in fall in land-labour ratio. Emerging markets, also known as emerging economies or developing countries, are nations that are investing in more productive capacity. Characteristics of Developing Countries BY Hafeez260 The theme of this essay is: the importance of a study of other semi-developed countries as they struggle for economic growth, the elimination of mass poverty and, at the political level, for democratisation and the reduction of reliance on coercion. What are some differences between these two locations? Privacy Policy3. The low levels of per capita income and poverty in developing countries is due to low levels of productivity in various fields of production. In Table 4.2, we have given the dependency ratio on the working population. For these reasons, reformers in developing countries feel a sense of urgency not felt by their counterparts in rich countries. Country classification 147 Table D Fuel-exporting countries Economies in transition Developing countries Latin America and the Caribbean Africa East Asia South Asia Western Asia Thus, according to Amartya Sen, freedom of choice, and control of one’s own life are central aspects of well-being for which true development is needed. This un-nourishment impairs the working capacity of the individuals and also makes them unable to acquire education and skills needed for high productivity job. Low per Capita Income: An underdeveloped country is a poor country. This shows labour productivity in agriculture and informal sector in the Indian economy, as in other developing economies, is due to the fact that the employment in organised industrial and services sector has not grown at a rate commensurate with the increase in population despite recording a higher growth rate in output. They have now realized that the solution of the problem of poverty lies in economic development. Characteristics of Developed Countries. For the removal of poverty capabilities of the poor should be enhanced so that they should be able to meet their minimum basic needs which include getting adequate food, health, clothing and shelter. Various developing countries differ a good deal from each other. Developing countries are countries with economies that have a low gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rely heavily on agriculture as the primary industry. Ever-increasing discontent in the poor countries is bound, sooner or later, to aggravate the already explosive situation in the world. There is a growing and legitimate desire of the poor nations to eradicate poverty. The resultant pressure of population on land and in informal sector thus gives rise to what has been called “disguised unemployment”. Leaders of developing countries want to create a better quality of life for their people. Characteristic # 1. In many others, the developing countries do not share common interests and may find themselves on opposite sides of a negotiation. In the early 1950s in most of developing countries investment was only 5 per cent to 8 per cent of the national income, whereas in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, it was generally from 15 per cent to 30 per cent. That is, population in developing countries has been growing at a much faster rate as compared to the developed countries. It has now been realised that political freedom without economic freedom and prosperity has no meaning. Unemployment and Poverty: Low: High: Rates One important consequence of this rapid rate of population growth is that it throws more and more people on land and into informal sector to eke out their living from agriculture, since alternative occupations do not simultaneously develop and thus are not there to absorb the increasing numbers seeking gainful employment. This includes health risks such as having low access to safe water and sanitation and hygiene problems. Following are some of the basic and important characteristics which are common to all developing economies: An idea of the characteristics of a developing economy must have been gathered from the above analysis of the definitions of an underdeveloped economy. Under – developed countries are characterized by low output, capital and investment, excessive population growth, agricultural dependence and un-utilisation or underutilization of natural resources. The awareness of the possibilities of development is growing every day. It is because of common characteristics that their developmental problems are studied within a common analytical framework of development economics. In our analysis of human development index (HDI) we noted that there is great disparity in human capital among the developing and developed countries. Once specific problem developing countries face is a general lack of wealth, which negatively affects quality of life in a variety of ways, particularly in access to education. Secondly, as emphasized by Amartya Sen, development is needed so that people should enjoy freedom and life of valued functioning. As against these, for the year 1995 per capita income was $ 26,980 in USA, $ 23,750 in Sweden, $ 39,640 in Japan and 40,630 in Switzerland. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge It has been possible for agriculture to contain the surplus labour because of the prevalence of extended family system in which both work and income are shared by the family members. One indication of the capital deficiency is the low amount of capital per head of population. The United Nations has set a list of Sustainable Development Goals designed to help developing countries overcome these challenges. Developing countries are the poor countries of our world. Characteristics. It is evident from above that educational and skill levels in developing countries are much lower as compared to developed countries. The concept of dualism was first of all introduced into the development analysis by Dr. J.H. 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what are some characteristics of a developing country? 2021