[b] During the early period, accusations of lycanthropy (transformation into a wolf) were mixed with accusations of wolf-riding or wolf-charming. In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil. [46] In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve. An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings. The name vurdalak (вурдалак) for the Slavic vampire ("ghoul, revenant") is a corruption due to Alexander Pushkin, which was later widely spread by A.K. McFarland, 2014, p.39, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Luther and the Justification of Resistance to Legitimate Authority", "Is the fear of wolves justified? [5] She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach. [63] Sympathetic portrayals are few but notable, such as the comedic but tortured protagonist David Naughton in An American Werewolf in London,[67] and a less anguished and more confident and charismatic Jack Nicholson in the 1994 film Wolf. Slavic uses the term vlko-dlak (Polish wilkołak, Czech vlkodlak, Slovak vlkolak, Serbo-Croatian вукодлак - vukodlak, Slovenian volkodlak, Bulgarian върколак/vrkolak, Belarusian ваўкалак/vaukalak, Ukrainian вовкулака/vovkulaka), literally "wolf-skin", paralleling the Old Norse ulfhéðinn. by Patricia Briggs. The werewolf is a widespread concept in European folklore, existing in many variants, which are related by a common development of a Christian interpretation of underlying European folklore developed during the medieval period. April 2005 Adam Lipkin fear factor Werewolves I'm a sucker for werewolves. Maréchal de Retz.--III. One bite from a transformed or a transforming werewolf will turn its victims into werewolves and they will be left with a lifelong scar. THE BOOK OF WEREWOLVES BY SABINE BARING-GOULD 1865 CONTENTS CHAPTER I. The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins was thought to weigh it down. [32] Belief in the loup-garou present in Canada, the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan[52] and upstate New York, originates from French folklore influenced by Native American stories on the Wendigo. Nazi Germany used Werwolf, as the mythical creature's name is spelled in German, in 1942–43 as the codename for one of Hitler's headquarters. The Haitian jé-rouges differ from traditional European werewolves by their habit of actively trying to spread their lycanthropic condition to others, much like vampires. sensationalistic 'true crime' case-studies of cannibals, This book is one of the most cited references about werewolves. In the second century BC, the Greek geographer Pausanias related the story of King Lycaon of Arcadia, who was transformed into a wolf because he had sacrificed a child in the altar of Zeus Lycaeus. v. i. [16][17], Virgil, in his poetic work Eclogues, wrote of a man called Moeris, who used herbs and poisons picked in his native Pontus to turn himself into a wolf. Along with the vulnerability to the silver bullet, the full moon being the cause of the transformation only became part of the depiction of werewolves on a widespread basis in the twentieth century. The book was released by Land of Enchantment in November of 1983, and illustrated by Bernie Wrightson. [13] According to Pausanias, this was not a one-off event, but that men have been transformed into wolves during the sacrifices to Zeus Lycaeus since the time of Lycaon. Two fictional depictions of "Operation Werwolf"—the US television series True Blood and the 2012 novel Wolf Hunter by J. L. Benét—mix the two meanings of "Werwolf" by depicting the 1945 diehard Nazi commandos as being actual werewolves. Translated by, Crossen, Carys Elizabeth. Some change shape at will; others, in whom the condition is hereditary or acquired by having been bitten by a werewolf, change shape involuntarily whenever there is … [citation needed], Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trials, one of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century. οὗτος ἔγραψε δι’ ἐπῶν ἡρωϊκῶν βιβλία ἰατρικὰ δύο καὶ μʹ, ἐν οἷς καὶ περὶ λυκανθρώπου. [30] Such examples of werewolves in Ireland and the British Isles can be found in the work of the 9th century Welsh monk Nennius; female werewolves appear in the Irish work Tales of the Elders, from the 12th century; and Welsh werewolves in the 12th-13th century Mabinogion. A Fennoscandian perspective", Facundo Quiroga, "The Tiger of the Argentine Prairies" and the Legend of the ". He is best known for writing the hymn 'Onward Christian Soldiers'. When the European colonization of the Americas occurred, the pioneers brought their own werewolf folklore with them and were later influenced by the lore of their neighbouring colonies and those of the Natives. Gervase, who was writing in Germany, also tells the reader that the transformation of men into wolves cannot be easily dismissed, for "...in England we have often seen men change into wolves" ("Vidimus enim frequenter in Anglia per lunationes homines in lupos mutari…"). Their underlying common origin can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European mythology, where lycanthropy is reconstructed as an aspect of the initiation of the warrior class. The form a werewolf assumes was generally anthropomorphic in early films such as The Wolf Man and Werewolf of London, but a larger and powerful wolf in many later films.[69]. by SABINE BARING-GOULD Smith, Elder & Co., London 1865 Early sources for belief in this ability or affliction, called lycanthropy /laɪˈkænθrəpi/, are Petronius (27–66) and Gervase of Tilbury (1150–1228). Szabó, György. Werewolves were sighted in 1598 in Anjou, and a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in 1603. [32], Most modern fiction describes werewolves as vulnerable to silver weapons and highly resistant to other injuries. Disgusted, the god turns Lycaon into a wolf. For other uses, see. To that end, he kills a Molossian hostage and serve his entrails to Zeus. [33] [24] Further evidence of the widespread belief in werewolves and other human-animal transformations can be seen in theological attacks made against such beliefs; Conrad of Hirsau, writing in the 11th century, forbids the reading of stories in which a person's reason is obscured following such a transformation. In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. In some fiction, the power of the werewolf extends to human form, such as invulnerability to conventional injury due to their healing factor, superhuman speed and strength and falling on their feet from high falls. Cycle of the Werewolf and The Colorado Kid are the only two Stephen King novels to only be published in paperback once. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. Anomalous Case.--The Human Hyæna. In Hungarian folklore, the werewolves used to live specially in the region of Transdanubia, and it was thought that the ability to change into a wolf was obtained in the infant age, after the suffering of abuse by the parents or by a curse. The Wolf of Dorian Gray: A Werewolf Spawned by the Evil of Man. In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his or her face.[32]. Moon Called. Language: English. [75], Mythological human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf or an anthropomorphic wolflike creature, Several terms redirect here. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest. Quoting Euanthes, [14] he mentions that in Arcadia, once a year a man was chosen by lot from the Anthus' clan. The Fables of Mkhitar Gosh (New York, 1987), translated with an introduction by R. Bedrosian, edited by Elise Antreassian and illustrated by Anahid Janjigian, S. Baring-Gould. (Μ 205) Μάρκελλος Σιδήτης, ἰατρός, ἐπὶ Μάρκου Ἀντωνίνου. [32] However, the idea that lycanthropy could be transmitted in this way is not part of the original myths and legends and only appears in relatively recent beliefs. Kim R. McCone, "Hund, Wolf, und Krieger bei den Indogermanen" in W. Meid (ed. Werewolves are often depicted as immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects, such as a silver-tipped cane, bullet or blade; this attribute was first adopted cinematically in The Wolf Man. Herodotus, in his Histories,[7] wrote that the Neuri, a tribe he places to the north-east of Scythia, were all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape. He was restored to human form 10 years later and went on to become an Olympic champion. "The Book of Were-Wolves". [28] Melion and Biclarel are two anonymous lais that share the theme of a werewolf knight being betrayed by his wife.[29]. (1865), Temme, J.D.H. When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin. One such report concerned the Beast of Gévaudan which terrorized the general area of the former province of Gévaudan, now called Lozère, in south-central France; from the years 1764 to 1767, it killed upwards of 80 men, women, and children. Sabine Baring-Gould (1834-1924) was a Vicar in the Church of England in Devon, The tale probably relates to a rite of passage for Arcadian' youths. The word or concept does not occur in medieval German poetry or fiction, gaining popularity only from the 15th century. The transformation usually occurred during the winter solstice, Easter and a full moon. She is armed with a large knife for the two-hour trip but does not think she is in danger because \"she has been too much loved ever to feel scared.\" Unlike other children of the region, whom poverty forces to grow up quickly, this child has been kept young because she is her family's bea… This is said to be corroborated by the fact that areas devoid of wolves typically use different kinds of predator to fill the niche; werehyenas in Africa, weretigers in India,[32] as well as werepumas ("runa uturuncu")[37][38] and werejaguars ("yaguaraté-abá" or "tigre-capiango")[39][40] in southern South America. In the beginning we meet Peter Fortune, a 10 year old who spends most of his time in his own private world made up entirely in his mind than in the outer world. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers. The Trial. However, the word is not attested in the medieval period. [32] These warriors were resistant to pain and killed viciously in battle, much like wild animals. convicted and executed for necrosadistic crimes. Buy The Book of Werewolves Illustrated by Baring-Gould, Sabine, Coleman, Loren (ISBN: 9781605203355) from Amazon's Book Store. People have, in fact, written the book on the subject—and not fiction. The appearance of a werewolf in its animal form varies from culture to culture, though it is most commonly portrayed as being indistinguishable from ordinary wolves save for the fact that it has no tail (a trait thought characteristic of witches in animal form), is often larger, and retains human eyes and a voice. (Summary by A. Gramour) The Book of Werewolves - Read book online for free Read free online: A survey of the myths and legends concerning lycanthropy from ancient times to the Victorian Era. This etext was scanned at sacred-texts. which have a tenuous connection with lycanthropy. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. [64] Universal Studios drew on a Balkan tale of a plant associated with lycanthropy as there was no literary work to draw upon, unlike the case with vampires. Once the disease infects its victim, the person will have to wait until the ne… Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe. [71], Werewolves are typically envisioned as "working-class" monsters, often being low in socio-economic status, although they can represent a variety of social classes and at times were seen as a way of representing "aristocratic decadence" during 19th century horror literature.[72][73][74]. A number of treatises on werewolves were written in France during 1595 and 1615. Be mindful these stories were published in 1865 and the content will have "current" events the author had encountered as well as mythological findings in terms of what was known and understood at that time. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628). [32] Others have pointed out the possibility of historical werewolves having been sufferers of hypertrichosis, a hereditary condition manifesting itself in excessive hair growth. The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. Plot summary. He reputedly taught classes with a pet bat on his shoulder. [68] Over time, the depiction of werewolves has gone from fully malevolent to even heroic creatures, such as in the Underworld and Twilight series, as well as Blood Lad, Dance in the Vampire Bund, Rosario + Vampire, and various other movies, anime, manga, and comic books. "[58], The 1897 novel Dracula and the short story "Dracula's Guest", both written by Bram Stoker, drew on earlier mythologies of werewolves and similar legendary demons and "was to voice the anxieties of an age", and the "fears of late Victorian patriarchy". [9], Pliny the Elder likewise recounts another tale of lycanthropy. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Book of Werewolves at Amazon.com. Some of the wolves are werewolves, though, and sneak into human homes. (Summary by A. Gramour) Genre(s): Myths, Legends & Fairy Tales. Fantasmas de la selva misionera (". ), J.B. Ambrosetti (1976). The term lycanthropy, referring both to the ability to transform oneself into a wolf and to the act of so doing, comes from Ancient Greek λυκάνθρωπος lukánthropos (from λύκος lúkos "wolf" and ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos "human"). The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovenia. Chapter II. The Book of the Were-Wolf takes a rationalistic approach to the subject. Such transformations of "men into wolves" in pagan cult were associated with the devil from the early medieval perspective. In the war's final days, the Nazi "Operation Werwolf" aimed at creating a commando force that would operate behind enemy lines as the Allies advanced through Germany itself. Since the wolf was the totemic ancestor animal of the Turkic peoples, they would be respectful of any shaman who was in such a form. The Maréchal de Retz.--II. controversial theory about this subject. Dening T R & West A (1989) Multiple serial lycanthropy. Book Summary. The Nature of the Beast: Transformations of the Werewolf from the 1970s to the Twenty-first Century. Augustine instead uses the phrase "in lupum fuisse mutatum" (changed into the form of a wolf) to describe the physical metamorphosis of werewolves, which is similar to phrases used in the medieval period. [27] Gervase also supports this terminology when he tells us that the French use the term "gerulfi" to describe what the English call "werewolves". The Slavic term was loaned into modern Greek as Vrykolakas. [25] Conrad specifically refers to the tales of Ovid in his tract. The Book of Werewolves. Werewolves are also able to Change partially, "half in and half out of wolf form", with their wolf ears, taloned hands, muzzle, and some fur, b… He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. The situation as described during the medieval period gives rise to the dual form of werewolf folklore in Early Modern Europe. Tolstoy in his novella The Family of the Vourdalak (composed in French, but first published in a Russian translation in 1884). [6], A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology. The Book of Were-Wolves by Sabine Baring-Gould. The concept of the werewolf in Western and Northern Europe is strongly influenced by the role of the wolf in Germanic paganism (e.g. Nevertheless, the first ten chapters of this book constitute "On Porphyria and the Ætiology of Werwolves", http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/werewolf.html#temmezarnow, "The Nazi Werewolves Who Terrorized Allied Soldiers at the End of WWII", United States National Library of Medicine, Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Werewolf&oldid=999754357, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2013, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2013, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Old English (ca. After hitting up the local bookshop I got my hands on the graphic novel-like book Werewolves. [34] although there were continuing reports of extraordinary wolflike beasts (but not werewolves). In 1539, Martin Luther used the form beerwolf to describe a hypothetical ruler worse than a tyrant who must be resisted.[31]. This lai (a type of Breton sung-poem) follows many themes found within other werewolf tales - the removal of clothing and attempting to refrain from the consumption of human flesh can be found in Pliny the Elder, as well as in the second of Gervase of Tilbury's werewolf stories, about a werewolf by the name of Chaucevaire. [1][2] Die Volkssagen von Pommern und Rugen. Chapter XIII. In The City of God, Augustine of Hippo gives an account similar to that found in Pliny the Elder. The chosen man was escorted to a marsh in the area, where he hung his clothes into an oak tree, swam across the marsh and transformed into a wolf, joining a pack for nine years. The German word werwolf is recorded by Burchard von Worms in the 11th century, and by Bertold of Regensburg in the 13th, but is not recorded in all of medieval German poetry or fiction. Sabine BARING-GOULD (1834 - 1924) A survey of the myths and legends concerning lycanthropy from ancient times to the Victorian Era. Werewolves are one of the most fearsome fictional creatures around, and whether they're good or evil, they're always out for blood. after he turned into a wolf he started howling and then ran off into the woods. the type of insanity where the patient imagines to have transformed into a wolf, and not in reference to supposedly real shapeshifting. "A clever lad suggested that they gather all their silver buttons, goblets, belt buckles, and so forth, and melt them down into bullets for their muskets and pistols. The standard comparative overview of this aspect of Indo-European mythology is McCone (1987). [50], Serbian vukodlaks traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, when they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees. the narrative takes a strange turn into In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. Baring-Gould treats the phenomenon of the werewolf as a psychological aberration, as essentially a delusional state. This evidence spans much of the Continent, as well as the British Isles. University of Wales Press, 2019, p.206, Senn, Bryan. Lycanthropy(also known as the Werewolf's Curse) is a supernatural disease created from an unknown origin that transforms its victims into vicious, uncontrollable wolves: Werewolves. Marie also reveals to us the existence of werewolf belief in Breton and Norman France, by telling us the Franco-Norman word for werewolf: garwulf, which, she explains, are common in that part of France, where "...many men turned into werewolves". This includes an extended treatment of the case of Giles de Rais, The Sentence and Execution. Úlfhednar and berserkers are closely associated with the Norse god Odin. THE WERE-WOLF IN THE NORTH. [43], Woodward thought that these beliefs were due to the Norse colonization of the Americas. The word werewolf comes from the Old English word werwulf, a compound of wer "man" and wulf "wolf". The Bloody Chamber study guide contains a biography of Angela Carter, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. [47] In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalism, but none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole in 1573, there was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused. 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