where is the original bhagavad gita kept

This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. imam vivasvate yogam In this context, the Gita advises Arjuna to do his holy duty (sva-dharma) as a warrior, fight and kill. [247] Richard Davis cites a count by Callewaert & Hemraj in 1982 of 1,891 translations of the Bhagavad Gita in 75 languages, including 273 in English. [93] This adds to 745 verses. Savarkar "often turned to Hindu scripture such as the Bhagavad Gita, arguing that the text justified violence against those who would harm Mother India. About the Book The Original Bhagavad Gita contains the rare verses and the total number of verses in it is 745, which is in conformity with the Gitamana verse of the Bhishma parva of the Mahabharata. Dear devotee, Welcome. [101] He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. The opposite of these are demonic, such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being inhumane, states Krishna. I first heard of the Bhagavad Gita as kid in the quote attributed to Robert Oppenheimer, when he witnessed the first atomic explosion. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal soul (kshetrajna). Vanara Gita - praise of Hanuman from Parasara Samhita, Mathura Shahi Idgah Mosque is original Sri Krishna…, Vedic Yoga Mudras in Egyptian and Sumerian Statues, Ancient Egyptian God ANUBIS, similar to Kalabhairava, Jupiter Combust 2021 January-February in Capricorn, Effects, Makar Sankranti 2021 Astrological Significance & Effects, Kala Sarpa Dosha 2021 Dates in January-April, Total Solar Eclipse 14 December 2020, Effects, Transit MERCURY in Aspects to Natal Houses. [365], Vivekananda's works contained numerous references to the Gita, such as his lectures on the four yogas – Bhakti, Jnana, Karma, and Raja. It equates self-knowledge and the union with Purusha (Krishna) as the Self to be the highest goal of any spiritual pursuit. [239] He places the Pancaratra Agama in the last three or four centuries of 1st-millennium BCE, and proposes that both the tantric and vedic, the Agama and the Gita share the same Vasudeva-Krishna roots. [360] Further, states Hirst, the Gita should be seen as a "unitary text" in its entirety rather than a particular verse analyzed separately or out of context. "[354][note 25], Aurobindo modernises the concept of dharma and svabhava by internalising it, away from the social order and its duties towards one's personal capacities, which leads to a radical individualism,[357] "finding the fulfilment of the purpose of existence in the individual alone. Madhva's commentary has attracted secondary works by pontiffs of the Dvaita Vedanta monasteries such as Padmanabha Tirtha, Jayatirtha, and Raghavendra Tirtha. [83][84] The guna premise is a synthesis of the ideas from the Samkhya school of Hinduism. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same. [190] Theologian Catherine Cornille writes, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (Jnana), action (karma), and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation. According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. 7th Edition, 1977, High Quality Djvu & pdf with text and outlines. [40] According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is generally accepted to be a 2nd-century-BCE text. My earliest memory of the “ Bhagavad Gita ” is a worn-from-use, spine-twisted, hardcover copy of the epic my grandmother kept on a dressing table—which would later go on to become a family heirloom. [24] Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. [70][note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. [95] Its 700 verses[91] are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). For Dnyaneshwar, people err when they see themselves distinct from each other and Krishna, and these distinctions vanish as soon as they accept, understand and enter with love unto Krishna. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. [3] The 4th chapter is the first time where Krishna begins to reveal his divine nature to Arjuna. The First Edition of our work was published in 1988. [22], In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa,[23] whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. He states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, and dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita. [193], Jnana yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, and direct realization of the Brahman. Press alt + / to open this menu. The later verses of the chapter return to the discussion of motiveless action and the need to determine the right action, performing it as one's dharma (duty) while renouncing the results, rewards, fruits. Since Shankara's time, the "700 verses" has been the standard benchmark for the critical edition of the Bhagavad Gita. [178] This equation is, however, interpreted in a number of ways by different sub-schools of Vedanta. These late 19th-century theosophical writings called the Gita as a "path of true spirituality" and "teaching nothing more than the basis of every system of philosophy and scientific endeavor", triumphing over other "Samkhya paths" of Hinduism that "have degenerated into superstition and demoralized India by leading people away from practical action". [18][112][113] The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. [185] To a karma yogi, right work done well is a form of prayer,[186] and karma yoga is the path of selfless action. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna, an avatar of Lord Vishnu. He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why. But the verse is not original to Adams’s work; it was respectfully pilfered from the Bhagavad Gita (in this case the 1944 translation by Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood). [156] According to Huston Smith, the Gita is teaching that "when one sees the entire universe as pervaded by the single Universal Spirit [Krishna], one contemplates, marvels, and falls in love with its amazing glory. [109] Sir Edwin Arnold titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as "The Distress of Arjuna". [95][note 10] The metered verse does not rhyme. [120] Krishna states that Arjuna has an obligation to understand and perform his duty (dharma), because everything is connected by the law of cause and effect. [289], Keśava Kāśmīri Bhaṭṭa, a commentator of Dvaitādvaita Vedanta school, wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita by the name Tattva-prakāśikā. [241][note 18] The ideas at the center of Vedic rituals in Shatapatha Brahmana and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita revolve around this absolute Person, the primordial genderless absolute, which is same as the goal of Pancaratra Agama and Tantra. [344] This argument, states Hacker, is an attempt to "universalize Hinduism". According to him, the true Self is the Supreme Brahman. It teaches both the abstract and the personalized Brahman (God), the latter in the form of Krishna. Paramahansa Yogananda's commentary on the Bhagavad Gita called God Talks with Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into Spanish, German, Thai and Hindi so far. Therein, in the third section, the Gita forms chapters 23–40, that is 6.3.23 to 6.3.40. [345][346][347] B. R. Ambedkar, born in a Dalit family and the principal architect of the Constitution of India, criticized the text for its stance on caste and for "defending certain dogmas of religion on philosophical grounds". Ātman (Soul) and Self-knowledge, along with the loss of egotistic ignorance, the goal of moksha, is something that is always present as the essence of the self, and must be realized by each person by one's own effort. [216], According to Malinar, "Arjuna's crisis and some of the arguments put forward to call him to action are connected to the debates on war and peace in the Udyoga Parva. "[246]:518, According to Sargeant, the Gita is "said to have been translated at least 200 times, in both poetic and prose forms". In the last eight verses of this chapter, Krishna states that he loves those who have compassion for all living beings, are content with whatever comes their way, who live a detached life that is impartial and selfless, unaffected by fleeting pleasure or pain, neither craving for praise nor depressed by criticism. The Teachings of Bhagavad Gita are non-sectarian and do not belong to any particular creed, cult or county. An authentic manuscript of the Gita with 745 verses has not been found. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad. [339][note 24], Ralph Waldo Emerson, remarked the following after his first study of the Gita, and thereafter frequently quoted the text in his journals and letters, particularly the "work with inner renunciation" idea in his writings on man's quest for spiritual energy:[342], I owed – my friend and I owed – a magnificent day to the Bhagavad Geeta. [25][37] This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita. [231], In Aurobindo's view, Krishna was a historical figure, but his significance in the Gita is as a "symbol of the divine dealings with humanity",[232] while Arjuna typifies a "struggling human soul". The metered verse does not rhyme. First ‘decolonized’ English translation of the Bhagavad Gita Ten years in the making, a new English version of the world’s most translated – and mistranslated – ancient Indian scripture could be the purest because it does not include colonial, western or Christian distortions. [200], Sivananda's commentary regards the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita as having a progressive order, by which Krishna leads "Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another. [116][117][118] Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule. Bhakti is the most important means of attaining liberation. [46] The competing tradition may be the materialists (Charvaka), states Fowler. [286][287], Madhva, a commentator of the Dvaita Vedanta school,[280] wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, which exemplifies the thinking of the "dualist" school (Dvaita Vedanta). [91], The original Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles. [168] This theme has led scholars to call the Gita as panentheistic,[166] theistic and monistic. [34] The Gita, states van Buitenen, was conceived and developed by the Mahabharata authors to "bring to a climax and solution the dharmic dilemma of a war". but those who work without expecting reward [178] According to Raju, the Gita supports this identity and spiritual monism, but as a form of synthesis with a personal God. [68] Aurobindo described the text as a synthesis of various Yogas. All phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions. [226] Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious". [89] These include writing systems that are currently in use, as well as early scripts such as the Sharada script now dormant. [42] On the basis of the estimated dates of Mahabharata as evidenced by exact quotes of it in the Buddhist literature by Asvaghosa (c. 100 CE), Upadhyaya states that the Mahabharata, and therefore Gita, must have been well known by then for a Buddhist to be quoting it. [119], Some translators title the chapter as Karma yoga, Virtue in Work, Selfless Service, or The Yoga of Action. "[156], Some translators title the chapter as Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga, The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine, Two Paths, or The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demonic. Of the 18 chapters of the Gita, the first chapter is the only one where Shri Krishna does not utter a single word. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. A part of the verse from this chapter was recited by Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb explosion. [244] The Wilkins translation had an introduction to the Gita by Warren Hastings. [114], Some translators title the chapter as Sankhya Yoga, The Book of Doctrines, Self-Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge (and Philosophy). If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst at once into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the mighty one ...[338]. It considers this transient reality as Maya. evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh sa kaleneha mahata yogo nastah parantapa – Bhagavad Gita 4.2 [228] Vivekananda states, "when we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil". NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press. The movie, however, uses the plot but glosses over the teachings unlike the novel. [42][note 6] This suggests a terminus ante quem (latest date) of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st century CE. [152][153][154], Some translators title the chapter as Purushottama yoga, Religion by Attaining the Supreme Krishna, The Supreme Self, or The Yoga of the Supreme Purusha. So, Krishna did not do any trick or magic and time did not freeze. These are the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. Chapter 3: Karma-yoga Bg 3.23. [web 7][web 8], The 1995 novel by Steven Pressfield, and its adaptation as the 2000 golf movie The Legend of Bagger Vance by Robert Redford has parallels to the Bhagavad Gita, according to Steven J. Rosen. Aurobindo writes, "... That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the. [284], Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu) tradition in 11th and early 12th century. (Giampaolo Tomassetti (Pinterest)) [44][note 7], According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. —Bhagavad Gita 6.1Eknath Easwaran[128][note 14], Some translators title the sixth chapter as Dhyana yoga, Religion by Self-Restraint, The Practice of Meditation, or The Yoga of Meditation. [222] The Gita message emphasizes that the personal moral confusion and struggle must be addressed, the warrior needs to rise beyond "personal and social values" and understand what is at stake and "why he must fight", states Miller. Keep Reasonable expectations from your Partner by Nitaisevini Mataji. Krishna says that such self-realized people are impartial to friends and enemies, are beyond good and evil, equally disposed to those who support them or oppose them because they have reached the summit of consciousness. [70][71] It discusses whether one should renounce a householder lifestyle for a life as an ascetic, or lead a householder life dedicated to one's duty and profession, or pursue a householder life devoted to a personalized god in the revealed form of Krishna. A story in this vedic text, states Hudson, highlights the meaning of the name Vasudeva as the 'shining one (deva) who dwells (vasu) in all things and in whom all things dwell', and the meaning of Vishnu to be the 'pervading actor'. [376][377], Philip Glass retold the story of Gandhi's early development as an activist in South Africa through the text of the Gita in the opera Satyagraha (1979). [web 3] The number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the Gita discovered on the Indian subcontinent. [50], The Bhagavad Gita is the best known,[51] and most famous of Hindu scriptures. [223], "The Field of Dharma" is also called the "Field of action" by Sri Aurobindo, a freedom fighter and philosopher. He labels the first chapter "Arjuna Vishada Yogam" or the "Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection". [342], The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. [12][note 8], The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. manus ca loka-bhrty-artham sutayeksvakave dadau [227], Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. [166][167] According to Jeaneane Fowler, the Gita builds on the Upanishadic Brahman theme, conceptualized to be that which is everywhere, unaffected, constant Absolute, indescribable and nirguna (abstract, without features). [219][220][221], According to the Indologist Barbara Miller, the text frames heroism not in terms of physical abilities, but instead in terms of effort and inner commitment to fulfill a warrior's dharma in the battlefield. Steven Pressfield acknowledges that the Gita was his inspiration, the golfer character in his novel is Arjuna, the caddie is Krishna, states Rosen. [116] Krishna answers. 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