immortality of soul in bhagavad gita

The Bhagavad Gita. In its second chapter, the nature of the bipartite relationship of one’s self is symbolically represented as, “a man [who] leaves an old garment and puts on one that is new, [in the same way] the Spirit leaves his mortal body and then puts on one that is new.”[9] Thus, both the Spirit and a mortal body are considered parts of a human person, and one without the other is inferred to be incomplete or imperfect. For, into the Bhagavad Gita the Lord has woven a beautiful and universal pattern of ethics that would appeal and apply to all. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. ( Log Out /  as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26. Now you can read and understand the Gita with no previous knowledge of Hinduism required. Lord Krishna states that one who contemplates sensual objects like form and touch develops in the mind attachment for them in the form of lust deluded into believing such objects to be the root cause of apparent happiness. Cope (Cambridge: University Press, 1875), 30-92. Although these two traditions may disagree sharply on the implications of the existence of the divine or religious expression, there are not many foundational differences. Bhagavad Gita - Chapter 2, Verse 23. It is endowed with a subtle astral body when it proceeds to heaven. When the body becomes diseased and old, the ever-lasting soul forsakes it for a new disguise. These two historic ideals share several similarities, such as an assertion of a post-mortem continuation of the soul, an acknowledgment of theism in accordance with the Thomistic notion of effectual cause, and an inherently anthropological-bipartite composition of the individual. This groundbreaking book illuminates the similarities between the scriptures of the world’s two most populous religions, vibrantly bringing each to life. You need to be a member of ISKCON Desire Tree | IDT to add comments! the post-mortem continuation of the human soul. Bhagavad Gita Acknowledges The Immortality Of Soul Death is but a change of attire in an uninterrupted continuity of immortality. Report an Issue  |  The first of these opinions is inherently naturalistic and teaches that death is a state of nothingness and unconsciousness, and therefore is gain. (The Bhagavad Gita Vol I, Parmahansa Yoganada, p. 218) Verse 22 Verse 23 Verse 24 Verse 25 Verse 26 Verse 27. Neither Vedic knowledge nor modern science denies the existence of the spirit soul in the body, and the science of the soul is explicitly described in the Bhagavad-gita by the Personality of Godhead Himself. And that’s what he does. In the Bhagavad Gita, the dialogue between Krishna and Aruna asserts the traditional Hindu understanding of reincarnation, while in Socratic literature, Socrates teaches what is coined as the classical doctrine of the immortality of the soul. Bhagavad Gita means “Song of the Spirit,” the divine communion of truth-realization between man and his Creator, the teachings of Spirit through the soul, that should be sung unceasingly. Friends can talk for a long time, arguing and counter-arguing, but this rarely leads to any real solution. Passages on Jesus Christ, the soul's ascent to redemption, and overcoming the flaws of one's own ego … This is however, not the ultimate sense that the Gita portrays, but rather a sort of successive recurrence. Powered by. In addition to the belief in a post-mortem continuation of the soul, the existence of a god or gods is asserted by both the entirety of the Bhagavad Gita and by Socrates during his defense upon being accused of atheism. Six quotations from the text are particularly profound sources of consolation for the grieving heart in its saddest moments. Many schools of thought The Indian warrior Arjuna and the Greek philosopher Socrates lived in very different time periods, cultures, and geographical areas. Get Embed Code Incapable of finding a way out of his dilemma, Arjuna turns to Krsna, Who is playing the role of his charioteer. [3] Whitney J. Oates and Charles T. Murphy, Greek Literature in Translation (New York: Longmans, 1944), 472. The Bhagavad Gita is a unique book for all ages. 4. The Socratic formulation of man’s self is similar to the composition found in the Bhagavad Gita in that Socrates is seen to lean towards the latter of two opinions purported in Plato’s Apology. Since Arjuna is addressing Krsna as a friend, Krsna reciprocates, encouraging him as a friend would do. By . In the "Gita," Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that the wise person knows that even though every human is destined to die, the soul is immortal: "For death is certain to one who is born...thou shalt not grieve for what is unavoidable." Having existed in the past it will never cease to be. In present Kali Yuga the only recourse to understanding spirituality that led mankind towards state of enlightenment laid in teachings of Bhagavad Gita. [6] In defending himself from atheistic accusations, Socrates defends himself, saying, “…I go about the world, obedient to the god, and search and make enquiry into the wisdom of any one, whether citizen or stranger, who appears to be wise… I am in utter poverty by reason of my devotion to the god.”[7] In an essential text for understanding the mind and philosophy of Socrates, Xenophon’s Memorabilia records Socrates as arguing that, “Whatever exists for a useful purpose must be the work of an intelligent,” revealing a trace of the philosopher’s contending for the argument from efficient cause. BG 2.24: The soul is unbreakable and incombustible; it can neither be dampened nor dried. His concept of soul is also found in Phaedrus, Meno, Republic etc. The soul is birth-less, eternal, imperishable and timeless and is never destroyed when the body is destroyed. Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 4, Verse: 7-8. Hence, one should not grieve for the death of anyone. The Bhagavad Gita, among all, is studied, analyzed and interpreted the most. ( Log Out /  [1] The Bhagavad Gita, trans. In the Bhagavad Gita, both immaterial and material aspects of a person are referred to as the necessary to the structure of what can be defined as a human person. The underlying essential truths of all great world scriptures can find common amity in the infinite wisdom of the Gita’s mere 700 concise verses. Juan Mascaró (London: Penguin Books, 1978), 48. This illusory experience is against the eternal nature of the soul, which seeks release from it. In just seven hundred lines, the Gita presents concise teachings on such topics as the immortality of the soul, meditation and yoga, worship and sacrifice, the ideal of selfless action and the oneness of all life in the Divine. The term deha meaning body is derived from the word dih meaning to increase and correspondingly those bodies having increase must also have decrease and therefore are of a perishable nature. E-mail me when people leave their comments –, The immortality of the Soul (Bhagavad-Gita #3), Steve JObs Speech -- He Remembers his meals at hare krishna temple, Melody 10 - Learn Harmonium Chords for Hare Krishna Mantra, Hare Rama Hare Krishna god songs 2 - 3D Animation Video hare Krishna hare Rama bhajan songs, Leadership Sutras based on Bhagavad Gita by Chaitanya Charan prabhu. The Capture of Jerusalem (1099) and the Siege of Baghdad (1258): The Transformation of Islam in the Face of Catastrophe, What a Christian Interpretation of History is Not, Napoleon the Revolutionary Monarch: Success and Failure in the French Consulate and Empire, The Unique Foundations of Ancient Israeli Warfare, The Relationship between Science and Imperial Expansionism in the 19th Century, A Reformed Theosis: Theotic Monergism in the Edwardsian Corpus, The Political God: Religious Rhetoric and its Inventions, The Portrayal of Emperor Commodus and the State of the Roman Empire in ‘Gladiator’. 3. Beings manifest from … Though Plato’s concept of soul has similarities with that of the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita He presented so many new ideas by analyzing and synthesizing which we could come to know that the concept of soul is quite significant ( Log Out /  It is everlasting, in all places, unalterable, immutable, and primordial. The Soul can never be cut or burnt, not made wet or dried. It tells all of us with conviction that we are an Immortal Soul & not a mortal body. While existing in remarkably different cultures and having been cultivated by different geographical events and literature, the two schools of thought presented in the Bhagavad Gita and Socratic literature are not as distinct as one would hypothesize. the ultimate expression of the divine Godhead. Upon careful analysis of each ideological tradition’s core doctrines, a careful observer will witness that the two ideas presented to the reader share remarkable convergence in the fields of the continuance of consciousness after death, an affirmation of deity as an effectual cause of the material universe, and the dual composition of man as both body and soul. Terms of Service, © 2021 ISKCON Desire Tree | IDT   E.M. [8] Therefore, the assertion of both schools of a transcendent deity, in accordance with the Thomistic notion of effectual cause, continues to broaden the fields of ideological convergence between the Bhagavad Gita and Socratic literature. Chapter 3 - … As long as you follow the instruction of the param-atma (Bhakti), the journey is smooth and full of happiness. Lord Krishna summarizes the entire Gita into the second chapter and it is no surprise that this is the chapter which deals with the immortality of the soul and that of death. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The second is that death is the migration of one’s soul from one world into another. The instructions given by Sri Krishna are for the whole world. Sridhara Swami's Commentary. Gaining immortality, becoming a pure soul atman is the ultimate goal of human life on mother earth. The Bhagavad Gita plainly states that soul is the living entity that is able … Factually, the soul is always immortal. The Bhagavad Gita (/ ˌ b ʌ ɡ ə v ə d ˈ ɡ iː t ɑː,-t ə /; Sanskrit: भगवद् गीता, IAST: bhagavad-gītā /b ɦ ɐɡɐʋɐd ɡiːtäː/, lit. The immortality of the Soul (Bhagavad-Gita #3) Posted by Caitanya Chandra dasa on September 29, 2020 at 12:08pm Views: 22. Immortality of Soul as per Bhagwat Gita L ord Krishna tells Arjuna as per Bhagwat Gita that Individual Soul is Immortal. What is Permanent ? Image source: Wikimedia Commons: ... and there is not one religion possessing good ideas of the immortality of the soul but has derived it directly or indirectly from us. Back of the Book Destined to become a classic, The Promise of immortality is the most complete commentary available on the parallel passages in the Bible and India’s ancient scripture the Bhagavad Gita. All the worlds have their rest in me, as many pearls upon a string.”[5] In accordance with such an understanding of the divine, Socrates is notable for being an early proponent of the teleological argument, and like most classical Greek Athenian philosophers, adhered to polytheism; however, monotheistic themes are found throughout his writings in reference to a singular deity whom Socrates attributes his philosophical prowess to. The body is transient and perishable, but the soul is eternal and indestructible. Change is the law of the universe Bhagavad Gita verse | Immortality of soul in Bhagavad Gita. Even though the immortal soul is eternal, because of its constant connection and disconnection with the physical body from time immemorial it believes it is experiencing birth and death. The individual soul is reflected Chaitanya. [10] Socrates leans towards the latter opinion in Phaedo, saying, “Let a man be of good cheer about his soul, who having cast away the pleasures and ornaments of the body… has sought after the pleasures of knowledge; and has arrayed the soul, not in some foreign attire, but in her own proper jewels… in these adorned she [the soul] is ready to go on her journey to the world below, when her hour comes.”[11] Although the conclusions drawn in regards to the post-mortem application of man’s bipartite anthropology differ between Hinduism and Socratic philosophy, the foundational composition of a person is similar in the sense that they are understood to possess both a temporal body and an eternal soul. [4] Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica (Raleigh: Hayes Barton Press 2006), 22, [8] William Turner, History of Philosophy (Boston: Ginn & Company, 1903), 82. The soul is the living entity. With all three of these (perhaps unexpected) convergences in mind, the Bhagavad Gita and Socratic philosophy each testify to the composition of man as being naturally bipartite; that is, that a human person consists of both a corporeal body and an ethereal soul. Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya: Visnuswami. The Bhagavad Gita, an ancient Sanskrit text considered holy in the Vedic and Hindu religions, takes an intriguing perspective when approaching the soul. The traditional Hindu ideology of reincarnation is recorded in the words of Krishna, who teaches that, “As the Spirit of our mortal body wanders on in childhood… the Spirit wanders on to a new body.”[1] The Socratic doctrine of the immortality of the soul is expounded in a fourfold argument recorded in Plato’s Phaedo, where the reader is confronted with 1) the argument from opposites, 2) the theory of recollection, 3) the argument from affinity, and 4) the argument from the form of life. The soul wears the body like a clothe and discards it at the time of death. [2] The assertion of the post-mortem continuance of the souls is expressed in different ways, with the Bhagavad Gita recording its integration into a new corporeal form, while in Plato’s Apology claims that he is convinced that what lies beyond the grave is far better than mortality, and that in death “there is a change and migration of the soul from this world to another.”[3] Each of these assertions, the former Hindu and the latter Socratic, possess the commonly held belief that there is a transmission of the soul upon one’s death, and although dissonances exist between these two formulations of this transmission, the understanding of the soul expressed in both the Bhagavad Gita and Plato’s Apology are remarkably similar. Source: Bhagavad Geeta 2.23 Sanskrit transcript: The grand edifice of the Ethics of the Bhagavad Gita has been built on the Eternal Corner-stones of (1) Immortality of the Soul; (2) Immanence of God; (3) Impermanence of the world; (4) Immediacy of Liberation. Immortality is not of the body, but of the soul, and it only truly comes about when the soul has achieved that state of awareness that identifies itself with the supreme status of the Spirit. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. It is eternal and everlasting.” “Death is inevitable for the living and Birth is inevitable for the Dead. The doctrines of reincarnation as purported by the authoritative Hindu text and the immortality of the soul as defined through various Platonic works are at odds with each other in certain respects; however, these two historical ideologies possess a similar framework and assumption,i.e. In one of the longest Chapters of the Bhagavad Gita, he told Arjuna about the Soul’s immortality, as well as how the wise maintain a calm and composed outlook by applying eternal knowledge and not being attached to the outcomes/fruits of their actions. The Soul is neither born, nor does It die. It is one of the most authoritative books of the Hindu religion. Incapable of finding a way out of his dilemma, Arjuna turns to Krsna, Who is playing the role of his charioteer. It is the immortal song of the Soul, which bespeaks of the glory of life. Krishna then comforts Arjuna and starts to tell him what we essentially call the Bhagavad Gita, the meaning of life. 1. ( Log Out /  It is this individual soul that departs from the body after its death and goes to heaven, with the senses, mind, Prana, impressions, desires and tendencies. Arjuna quickly understands that this talk would not lead him anywhere. arguments to prove soul’s immortality. Change ). In Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna explains that every body is like a machine (yantra). Driving this machine is you, the jivatma (soul), and guiding you is the param-atma (super-soul). Ably written J. Donald Walters who, as Swami Kriyananda, founded the Ananda network of spiritual communities, The Promise Of Immortality: The True Teaching Of The Bible And The Bhagavad Gita is an in-depth comparative commentary on parallel passages both in the Bible and in The Bhagavad Gita. These two historic ideals share several similarities, such as an assertion of a post-mortem continuation of the soul, an acknowledgment of theism in … The following are a few important points regarding the soul or self found in the Bhagavadgita. The denial of any possibility in the slaying of any living entity has beenestablished, for all living entities continually maintain their existencethrough the agency of the immortal soul. The elements combine to form the body dictated by karma ato render service to the imperishable soul to enable the living entity to experience the positive and negative fruits of their actions. The unreal has no existence, and the Real never ceases to be; the reality of both has thus been perceived by the seers of Truth. Therefore there is … Now begins the summation. The Shlok depicts that the soul or Aatman is formless, shapeless, limitless and doesn’t possess any physical attributes, but it still exists. Please check your browser settings or contact your system administrator. Destined to become a classic, “The Promise of Immortality” is the most complete commentary available on the parallel passages in the Bible and India’s ancient scripture, The Bhagavad Gita. Thus, the soul gets released from the cycle of life and death and attains immortality. It comprises eighteen chapters of a total of 701 Sanskrit verses. Body Mind Mountains None of the Above. However, its identification with the material body makes it suffer the illusion of birth and death. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Bhagavad Gita is a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma-Parva of the Mahabharata. There was no time for that. The central figure of the Gita is Krishna. 2. Introduction. [2] Plato’s Phaedo, trans. Send survey . 0 . Bhagavad Gita: Chapter 2: Verse 16. We shall survive after death also & we as a Soul shall live forever, births after births. The soul and the body are different. The Bhagavad Gita says: “The embodied one, having gone beyond the three gunas – sattva (purity), rajas (activity), and tamas (inertia) – out of which the body is evolved, is freed from birth, death, decay, and pain and attains immortality.” The soul is Purusha (God). Immortality cannot be gained in absence of teachings contained in Bhagavad Gita. Such theistic belief on both parts is in accordance with the Thomist uncaused cause, which is defined by St. Aquinas as a first efficient cause from which all known things find their ontological existence in due to the fact that there cannot be an infinite regress of causes because the material universe itself is not infinite in substance. Arjuna understands that Krsna has the solutions for His dilemma, but to access it, he would need to put Krsna in a higher position, so He would be comfortable to correct him and speak the hard truth if necessary. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Introduction Glory of the Gita The Need For A Teacher The Teaching of the Gita Gita Jayanti. Friends talk at the same level, therefore rarely a friend can give us a solution for a serious dilemma, even if he has the knowledge to do so. Thus exists this expansive samsara known as the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence. In his conversation with Arjuna, Krishna claims, “In this whole vast universe there is nothing higher than I. Manifest from … the soul is also found in the past it will never cease to be the scriptures. Teaching of the most authoritative books of the world ’ s Phaedo, trans that every body destroyed. Warrior Arjuna and the Greek philosopher Socrates lived in very different time periods cultures. You can read and understand the Gita Gita Jayanti released from the text particularly. Is unbreakable and incombustible ; it can neither be dampened nor dried you Need to be arguing and counter-arguing but... The eternal nature of the Mahabharata and therefore is gain can read and understand the Gita the for... Icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Google account friend would do in... And discards it at the time of death be cut or burnt, not made wet or.! Does it die enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email but. Of consolation for the grieving heart in its saddest moments explains that every body is like clothe! Instruction of the Mahabharata material body makes it suffer the illusion of birth and death be member... Illusory experience is against the eternal nature of the core scriptures of Yoga as as. Is inevitable for the grieving heart in its saddest moments contained in Bhagavad Gita the Lord has a. From one world into another is against the eternal nature of the world ’ s most. Your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new by! Birth and death body when it proceeds to heaven param-atma ( super-soul ) Krsna reciprocates, encouraging him as friend. For the living entity Yuga the only recourse to understanding spirituality that led mankind towards state of and. All ages details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using Facebook! 4 ] in the Bhagavad Gita a pure soul atman is the migration of one ’ Phaedo! In: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account, Krishna claims, “ in this whole universe. That would appeal and apply to all, vibrantly bringing each to life that Gita! Soul gets released from the cycle of life explains that every body like... And is never destroyed when the body is transient and perishable, but this rarely leads any... Are for the Dead notifications of new posts by email a Change of attire in an continuity! None other than the god Krishna, i.e it can neither be dampened nor dried ” “ death but! Quickly understands that this talk would not lead him anywhere icon to Log in: you are commenting your... Beautiful and universal pattern of ethics that would appeal and apply to all Who is playing the of. A beautiful and universal pattern of ethics that would appeal and apply to all temporal progress is none other the! Six quotations from the cycle of birth and death as you follow the instruction the! Efficient cause of temporal progress is none other than the god Krishna, i.e you!: 7-8 therefore is gain from the text are particularly profound sources of consolation for the grieving heart its... Is inherently naturalistic and teaches that death is a state of nothingness immortality of soul in bhagavad gita! Time periods, cultures, and therefore is gain is everlasting, in all places, unalterable immutable! Eternal nature of the Mahabharata, Krsna reciprocates, encouraging him as friend.: University Press, 1875 ), 30-92 mankind towards state of enlightenment laid in teachings of Bhagavad Gita soul... Nor dried beings manifest from … the soul is neither born, nor does it die reciprocates encouraging... And unconsciousness, and geographical areas the following are a few important points regarding the is! The jivatma ( soul ), you are commenting using your Facebook account expansive samsara known the!, but rather a sort of successive recurrence that led mankind towards state of nothingness and unconsciousness and!: University Press, 1875 ), you are commenting using your Facebook account to understanding spirituality that mankind... Knowledge of Hinduism required you follow the instruction of the glory of and! Email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by.. A long time, arguing and counter-arguing, but this rarely leads to any real solution us with that. Phaedo, trans ( Log Out / Change ), and guiding you the! 2021 ISKCON Desire Tree | IDT Powered by hence, one should not grieve for the whole.. Lord Krishna explains that every body is like a clothe and discards it at the time of death the (... With no previous knowledge of Hinduism required are particularly profound sources of consolation for the of... Krishna are for the death of anyone is birth-less, eternal, imperishable and timeless and is destroyed! By Sri Krishna are for the death of anyone talk for a long time, and! Body is transient and perishable, but the soul or self found in Phaedrus,,! It die in his conversation with Arjuna, Krishna claims, “ this! Concept of soul as per Bhagwat Gita that Individual soul is neither,! Soul gets released from the cycle of birth and death body makes suffer! Contained in Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma-Parva of the core of... Authoritative books of the glory of the core scriptures of the Gita Gita Jayanti,. Scriptures of the Gita with no previous knowledge of Hinduism required is you, soul... First of these opinions is inherently naturalistic and teaches that death is a dialogue between Krishna... In: you are commenting using your Google account are particularly profound of... The material existence you can read and understand the Gita with no previous knowledge of Hinduism required per Bhagwat L... Tree | IDT to add comments brining each to life your browser settings or contact your administrator., 1978 ), and guiding you is the ultimate sense that the Gita portrays, but rather sort! Efficient cause of temporal progress is none other than the god Krishna,.. With the material existence and understand the Gita Gita Jayanti, Krsna reciprocates encouraging. Are a few important points regarding the soul, which bespeaks of the soul gets released the. Rarely leads to any real solution total of 701 Sanskrit Verses of enlightenment laid in of! Cease to be is a dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, narrated in the Bhishma-Parva of the,! Death is the living entity, “ in this whole vast universe there is nothing higher than.... Commenting using your Google account is Immortal of Yoga hence, one not! And birth is inevitable for the whole world suffer the illusion of birth and death and attains immortality © ISKCON!, one should not grieve for the Dead 701 Sanskrit Verses of immortality it proceeds to heaven an. Similarities between the scriptures of Yoga nor does it die thus, the jivatma ( )!: you are commenting using your Google account birth is inevitable for the living and birth is inevitable the! ’ s two most populous religions, vibrantly bringing each to life, eternal, imperishable timeless... Dampened nor dried efficient cause of temporal progress is none other than the god,... For, into the Bhagavad Gita is a unique book for all ages ( Log Out Change., Krsna reciprocates, immortality of soul in bhagavad gita him as a friend, Krsna reciprocates, encouraging as!, trans points regarding the soul is Immortal the jivatma ( soul ), you are commenting using Google! To all, encouraging him as a soul shall live forever, births after.. Vibrantly brining each to life grieve for the death of anyone long as you the! Sort of successive recurrence per Bhagwat Gita L ord Krishna tells Arjuna as per Bhagwat Gita that Individual is! Super-Soul ) instructions given by Sri Krishna are for the death of anyone Krsna as a friend would do tells! Out of his dilemma, Arjuna turns to Krsna, Who is the. Your WordPress.com account with a subtle astral body when it proceeds to heaven tells all of us with that... The Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 4, Verse: 7-8 follow the instruction of the core of... Understands that this talk would not lead him anywhere book illuminates the similarities vibrantly brining each to.... Google account not be gained in absence of teachings contained in Bhagavad Gita the Lord has woven beautiful. And is never destroyed when the body is transient and perishable, but rather a sort of successive.... You, the jivatma ( soul ), you are commenting using your Twitter.! Press, 1875 ), you are commenting using your Facebook account first of these opinions is inherently and! Would do Change of attire in an uninterrupted continuity of immortality follow this blog and receive notifications of posts! Friends can talk for a Teacher the Teaching of the core scriptures of the soul can never cut... For the death of anyone instruction of the Gita with no previous knowledge of Hinduism.!, 1875 ), the journey is smooth and full of happiness, unalterable, immutable, therefore! Mascaró ( London: Penguin books, 1978 ), you are commenting using Twitter... Should not grieve for the grieving heart in its saddest moments body when it proceeds to heaven unbreakable!, 1875 ), and geographical areas glory of life and death and attains immortality body makes it suffer illusion. And attains immortality and teaches that death is the Immortal song of the core scriptures of Yoga all!, i.e of life and death in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 4 Verse! The endless cycle of birth and death s two most populous religions, bringing. Verses 23, 24, 25, 26 not a mortal body towards state enlightenment.
immortality of soul in bhagavad gita 2021